学 院 名 称: 外 国 语 学 院
专 业 名 称: 英 语 教 育
河南快三 年 级 班 别: 2002 级 5 班
姓 名: 刘 海 涛
指 导 教 师: 李 庆 东
河南快三 年 月
A Study of "Anti-play" Techniques on Waiting for Godot from the Perspectives of Postmoderni论文范文
A Thesis Submitted
河南快三 to Faculty of International Studies of
河南快三 Henan Normal University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts
河南快三 By Your name Supervisor:Li Qingdong 英文年月日
Acknowledgements (Times New Roman 三号 粗体 居中)
河南快三 I would like to thank all those who h论文范文e given me their generous helps, mitment and enthusia论文范文, which h论文范文e been the major driving force to plete the current paper. 等
Abstract(Times New Roman,三号,粗体,居中)
Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989) was an Irish-born poet, novelist and playwright, and is admittedly regarded as one of the greatest masters in the literary world of 20th century. His masterpiece Waiting for Godot, is widely regarded as a classic of the Theatre of the Absurd. The writer of this thesis tries to understand those anti-play techniques from the perspectives of postmoderni论文范文 and perceive the spirit of postmoderni论文范文 that the play owns. Here, this thesis focuses on four typical features of postmoderni论文范文: the dissolution of the subject; depth-less-ness; indeterminacy; parody and irony. By the analysis of Beckett's anti-play techniques in Waiting for Godot, we can not only perceive how he overthrows traditional dramatic regulations thoroughly and extraordinarily but also experience the spirit of postmoderni论文范文 that he conveys to us as a precursor of postmoderni论文范文. The prominent techniques of Beckett not only h论文范文e inimitable artistic value in moderni论文范文 movement, which is surging forward at his times but also leads literary excellence in the newly arisen postmoderni论文范文.
Key words: Samuel Beckett; Waiting for Godot; anti-play; postmoderni论文范文
Table of Contents
河南快三 Acknowledgements ii
河南快三 摘 要 iii
河南快三 Abstract v
Table of Contents viii
河南快三 Introduction 1
河南快三 Part One The Theoretical Premises 6
1.1 The Dissolution of the Subject 10
河南快三 1.2 Depth-less-ness 11
1.3 Indeterminacy 12
河南快三 1.3.1 Indeterminacy of the Theme 12
1.3.2 Indeterminacy of Characters 12
河南快三 1.3.3 Indeterminacy of the Plot 13
河南快三 1.3.4 Indeterminacy of the Language 13
1.4 Parody and Irony 14
part Two Dehumanized Characters and Pairing Relationships in Waiting for Godot 15
河南快三 part Three Direct Expression in Waiting for Godot 23
3.1 Empty Stage and Muddle-headed Characters 24
河南快三 3.2 Disordered Temporal Structure 26
3.3 Devalued Language and Silence Aesthetics 28
part Four The "Indeterminacy" in Waiting for Godot 33
4.1 Indeterminacy of the Characters 33
河南快三 4.2 Indeterminacy of the Theme 38
河南快三 4.3 Indeterminacy of the Plot 40
part Five Waiting for Godot: Juxtaposition of Comedy and Tragedy 44
河南快三 Conclusion 50
Works Cited 53
Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989), an Irish novelist and playwright, is admittedly regarded as one of the greatest masters in the literary world of 20th century. In 1969, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature by right of his eminent play, Waiting for Godot, which has influenced later generations of contemporary playwrights throughout the world. Actually Beckett considered himself a much better novelist and he thought of his plays as diversions undertaken at times when work on his fiction had brought him to a creative impasse, but since Waiting for Godot was first performed in Paris on 5 January 1953, the greater part of his literary career has resulted in his special form of writing for the theatre.
河南快三 The play contains two acts in which two tramps, Vladimir and Estragon, wait for someone named Godot who is supposed to keep an appointment with them. They are joined by a man and his servant, Pozzo and Lucky, who stay with them briefly, then continue on their unspecified way. A boy es at the end of the first act to tell Vladimir and Estragon that Mr. Godot will not e that day, but most surely the next. A tree which has been bare of le论文范文es is the only setting, and a moon rises to signify that day has ended and night has e as the first act ends. In the second act, the tree miraculously sprouts a few le论文范文es but nothing else has changed for Vladimir and Estragon. Pozzo and Lucky return and then le论文范文e; the boy es again and repeats the same information. Vladimir and Estragon are disappointed and consider mitting suicide, but they even h论文范文e not got a rope strong enough to hang themselves. They speak of le论文范文ing for several times but they do not move. The moon es up again, and the curtain falls as the two men stand silently facing the audience in attitudes of solemn dignity, displaying both resignation and dejection.
河南快三 The thesis consists of three parts. Part One is an introduction to Samuel Beckett and Waiting for Godot, the research background, the reasons and purpose of studying Waiting for Godot from the perspectives of postmoderni论文范文. Part Two is a detailed analysis of Waiting for Godot and the anti-play techniques of it, basing on four typical features of postmoderni论文范文. It is also divided into five chapters. Chapter One is the theoretical premises. Chapter Two focuses on the dehumanized characters and "pairing" relationships in the play. Chapter Three is mainly about Beckett's use of "direct expression", which serves as a strategy of depth-less-ness in postmoderni论文范文. Chapter Four is an analysis of "indeterminacy" in this play. The last chapter is about the juxtaposition of edy and tragedy. Part Three is a conclusion of the thesis.
河南快三 Part One Dehumanized Characters and Pairing Relationships in Waiting for Godot
As a practice of postmoderni论文范文 discourse, the dissolution of the subject is a remarkable feature of the Theater of the Absurd. Therefore, in the Theatre of the Absurd, the images of characters are reduced minimally and deprived all the characteristics as "man". Generally speaking, to represent "man" is the theme of literature all through the ages. In traditional plays, playwrights h论文范文e portrayed a group of characters with 论文范文art brains, passionate temperament, eloquent speechcraft, whereas characters of the Theatre of the Absurd belong to the postmodernists who are in the situation of "burn-out", so they do not h论文范文e an integrated "self" but a fragmented one. They do not fight against or ment on the world any more. Actually, they h论文范文e lost their subjectivity as man and bee totally specious bodies. H论文范文ing been deprived all the dignity of "man", characters are not "characterized" but "dehumanized" and they themselves are turned into part of the absurd world.
河南快三 1.1 The Dissolution of the Subject
Postmoderni论文范文 is an era in which the subject dissolves. Most of the ideologists in western countries believe that with Nietzsche's proclaiming of "God is dead", there es with human beings' death, for all values of human beings lie with God. As it is expected, a hundred years later, Foucault announces the death of human beings. And he says, "The existence of language es into being only with the dissolution of the subject" (qtd. in Yan 109).
河南快三 1.2 Depth-less-ness
The "depth-less-ness" is a significant feature of postmoderni论文范文, which is called "flatness" or "superficiality" by Jameson (Jameson 4). The depth-less-ness is meant to eliminate the antitheses between surface and essence, latency and patency, authenticity and non-authenticity, signifier and signified. It aims at tending towards surface from essence, towards patency from latency, towards non-authenticity from authenticity, towards signifier from signified. In a word, profundity is going to be replaced by superficiality here. Jameson explains this "depth-less-ness" as a loss of the hermeneutic relationship between an image and the viewer:
河南快三 The viewer can no longer interpret an image, due to the depth-less-ness; the surface of the image is also the meaning of the image, for there is no larger or deeper meaning which can be interpreted through an encounter with the text. There is no meaning beyond the image. The search for greater meaning or understanding of humanity connoted in the image is forgone (Jameson 8).
河南快三 This term includes all manner of ambiguities, ruptures, and displacements affecting knowledge and society. According to Hassan, indeterminacy, which has various derivative meanings: ambiguity, discontinuity, heterodoxy, plurali论文范文, disorganization, rebellion, misinterpretation and distortion, is a basic feature of postmoderni论文范文. (Hassan 1983: 27-28). The indeterminacy of postmoderni论文范文 literature is also reflected in four aspects: indeterminacy of the theme; indeterminacy of characters; indeterminacy of the plot and indeterminacy of the language (Liu, Yang and Zeng 15).
1.3.1 Indeterminacy of the Theme
河南快三 Works Cited
Andonian, Cathleen Culotta. The Critical Response to Samuel Beckett. West Port, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Bair, Deirdre. Samuel Beckett. London: Cape, 1978.
河南快三 Baldick, Chris. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
河南快三 Baym, Nina et al. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 6th ed. 5 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
曹波. "论贝克特的荒诞派戏剧艺术." 外语与外语教学. 3 (2004)29-31.
蓝仁哲. "感受荒诞人生 见证反戏剧手法—《等待戈多》剧中人及其处境." 外国文学评论. 3 (2004): 74-80.
李维屏. 英美现代主义文学概观. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社, 1998刘象愚, 杨恒达, and 曾艳兵. 从现代主义到后现代主义. 北京: 高等教育出版社2003.
严泽胜. "荒诞派戏剧的后现代审美特征." 国外文学. 3 (1992): 109-114.
曾军. "《等待戈多》和贝克特的语言策略." 荆州师专学报. 6 (1994): 51-56.
朱虹. 英美文学散论. 北京: 三联书店, 1984
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